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Reporting Guidelines

The criteria for preparation of manuscripts are adopted from the Uniform Requirement for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

For reports of randomized controlled trials, authors should refer to the CONSORT statement .

For reports of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, authors may refer to the PRISMA statement .

PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPT

Type manuscript on a white bond paper, 8 1/2 x 11 inches with margins of at least 1 in on all sides. Use double spacing throughout, including the title page, abstract, text, acknowledgements, references, tables, and legends for illustrations. Begin each of the following sections on separate pages: title page, abstract, text, acknowledgements, references, individual tables and legends. Number pages consecutively, beginning with the title page. Type the page number in the upper or lower right-hand corner of each page.

Manuscripts will be reviewed for possible publication with the understanding that they are being submitted to one journal at a time, and have not been published, simultaneously submitted, or already accepted for publication elsewhere. This does not preclude considerations of a manuscript that has been rejected by another journal or of a complete report that follows publication of preliminary findings elsewhere, usually in the form of an abstract. Copies of any possible duplicative published material should be submitted with the manuscript that is being sent for consideration.

The manuscript shall be reviewed by the members of the Editorial Board and by the peer reviewers chosen by the Editorial Board. The manuscript may undergo revisions before it can be published. For each revision, submit the revised manuscript, together with the previous manuscript containing the comments and corrections within one to two weeks from the time the edited manuscript was returned.

STYLE

Manuscripts must conform to acceptable English usage. Abbreviations must be limited primarily to those in general usage.

TITLE PAGE

The title page should contain:

  1. Article title.
    Concise titles are easier to read than long, convoluted ones. Titles that are too short may, however, lack important information, such as study design (which is particularly important in identifying randomized, controlled trials).
    Authors should include all information in the title that will make electronic retrieval of the article both sensitive and specific.
  2. Authors names.
    Format: First name, Middle initial, Family name
    Indicate institutional affiliations including the highest academic position of the authors
  3. Name of the department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be attributed.
  4. Disclaimers, if any.
  5. Contact information for corresponding authors.
    The name, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the author responsible for correspondence about the manuscript (the corresponding author; this author may or may not be the guarantor for the integrity of the study). The corresponding author should indicate clearly whether his or her e-mail address can be published.
  6. Source(s) of support in the form of grants, equipment, drugs, or all of these.
  7. A running head, or footline, usually no more than 40 characters (including letters and spaces) at the foot of the title page (optional).

AUTHORSHIP

The journals authorship criteria are adapted from those of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and are delineated on the JPD Authorship Affirmation Form, which must be signed by each author. All individuals involved in the preparation and writing of each paper who meet the JPDS authorship criteria must be listed as authors.

The names, highest academic degree, and affiliations of any persons who contributed to writing the paper or analyzing the data who do not meet authorship criteria must be included in the papers Acknowledgements section, along with a disclosure of any pertinent conflicts of interest. Individuals listed in the acknowledgements because of such contributions to the work, should provide written consent. A paper with corporate (collective) authorship must specify the key persons responsible for the article. Editors may require authors to justify the assignment of authorship.

ABSTRACT AND KEYWORDS

The second page should carry the abstract of not more than 150 words, typed double-spaced.

For clinical trials/experimental research, observational research, and systematic reviewsthe abstracts of papers submitted for publication should be structured, and organized as follows:

Background: What is the major problem that prompted the study?

Objective: What is the purpose of the study?

Methods: How was the study done?

Results: What are the most important findings?

Conclusion: What is the single most important conclusion?

For case reports and case series, the abstract and manuscript should have the following headings:

Introduction: Why is the case important enough to report?

Case report: What are the details of the case?

Conclusion: How would you summarize the case report? What is the most important conclusions?

These headings must be used before each description. In the abstract, it is not permissible to state that the results or other data will be presented or discussed. Use only approved abbreviations.

Below the abstract, provide and identify 3-10 keywords or brief phrases that will assist the indexers in cross-indexing your article. Use terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus. If MeSH terms are not available for recently introduced terms, present terms may be used.

TEXT

The text of observational and experimental articles is usually, but not necessarily, divided into sections with the following headings: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Lengthy articles may need subheadings within some sections to clarify their content, especially the Results and Discussion sections. Other types of articles such as case reports, reviews, and editorials may need other formats. The authors should consult the journal editors for further guidance.

IntroductionProvide a context or background for the study (that is, the nature of the problem and its significance). Summarize relevant issues on the disease/s under investigation. Include burden of the disease or its incidence rate locally and/ or internationally. State the rationale, specific purpose or research objective of, or hypothesis tested by the study or observation Both the main and secondary objectives should be clear, and any pre-specified subgroup analyses should be described. Provide only directly pertinent references, and do not include data or conclusions from the work being reported.

MethodsThe Methods section should include only information that was available at the time the plan or protocol for the study was being written; all information obtained during the study belongs in the Results section.

Selection and Description of Participants

Specify the research design, inclusive dates when the study was conducted, where it was conducted, and the eligibility criteria. Describe your selection of the observational or experimental participants (patients or laboratory animals, including controls) clearly, the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and a description of the source population. The guiding principle should be clarity about how and why a study was done in a particular way.

When reporting experiments on human subjects, indicate whether the procedures followed were in accord with the ethical standards of the Committee on Human Experimentation of the institutions in which the experiments were done, or were in accord with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975. State if your protocol was submitted and approved by the Ethical Review Board of your Institution. We will not be publishing papers that are not approved by the Ethical Review Board of the Institution where the study was conducted. When reporting experiments on animal subjects, indicate whether the institutions or the National Research Councils guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.

Technical Information

Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturers name and address in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow others to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods, including statistical methods; provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well-known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give the reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration. Authors submitting review manuscripts should include a section describing the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesizing data. These methods should also be summarized in the abstract.

Statistics

Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. Include details how you computed for the sample size. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Avoid relying solely on statistical hypothesis testing, such as the use of p values, which fail to convey important information about effect size. References for the design of the study and statistical methods should be to standard works when possible (with pages stated) when possible rather than to papers where designs or methods were originally reported. Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols. Specify the computer software used. Report how you handled losses to observations (i.e. dropouts from a clinical trial).

Results: Tables should be self-explanatory and numbered sequentially in Roman numerals in order of their mention in the text. Do not repeat all the data in the tables or illustrations in the text; emphasize or summarize only the most important observations. Extra or supplementary materials and technical detail can be placed in an appendix where they will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text, or they can be published solely in the electronic version of the journal. When data are summarized in the Results section, give numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. When reporting means, include the standard deviation, and in reporting relative risks, include the confidence interval. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess supporting data. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Avoid nontechnical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as random (which implies a randomizing device), normal, significant, correlations, and sample. Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols.

Discussion: Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them in the context of the totality of the best available evidence. Do not repeat in detail data or other information given in the Introduction or the Results section. For experimental studies, it is useful to begin the discussion by briefly summarizing the main findings, then explore possible mechanisms or explanations for these findings, compare and contrast the results with other relevant studies, state the limitations of the study, and explore the implications of the findings for future research and for clinical practice. Link the conclusions with the goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data. In particular, avoid making statements on economic benefits and costs unless the manuscript includes the appropriate economic data and analyses. Avoid claiming priority or alluding to work that has not been completed. State new hypotheses when warranted, but label them clearly as such. Recommendations, when appropriate, may be included.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Acknowledge only persons or agencies that have made substantive contributions to the study. Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission from everyone acknowledged by name because readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions.

REFERENCES

References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in parentheses. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in the list of Journals Indexed for MEDLINE, posted by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) on the Librarys Web site. The Uniform Requirements style for references is based largely on an American National Standards Institute style adapted by the NLM for its databases. Authors should consult NLMs Citing Medicine for information on its recommended formats for a variety of reference types. Authors may also consult sample references (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/ bsd/uniform_requirements.html), which is a list of examples extracted from or based on Citing Medicine for easy use by the ICMJE audience; these sample references are maintained by NLM.

Avoid using abstracts as references. Avoid citing personal communications or unpublished observations unless they provide essential not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text. For scientific articles, obtain written permission and confirmation of accuracy from the source of a personal communication.

The references must be verified against the original documents by the author(s). Examples of correct forms of references are given below (list the first six authors followed by et al):

Journals

Cribier B, Scrivener Y, Grosshans E. Tumors arising in nevus sebaceous: a study of 596 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000; 42(2):263-8.

Books

Hunt TK, editor. Wound healing and wound infection: theory and surgical practice. New York: Appleton-Century- Crofts; 1980.

Chapters in books

Costner MI, Sontheimer RD. Lupus Erythematosus. In: Wolff K, Goldsmith L, Katz S, Gilchrest B, Paller A, Lefell D, eds. Fitzpatricks Dermatology in General Medicine. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Co. Inc; 2008. p.1525-6.

For electronic media: journal article on the internet

Monga P, Mehta V, Balachandran C, Mathew M. Histoid Leprosy masquerading as eruptive xanthomas. Dermatol Online Journal [internet]. 2008 Aug [cited 2009 Jan 15]; 14(8):21. Available from: http://dermatology-s10.cdlib.org/148/letters/ whl/mehta.html.

TABLES

Tables capture information concisely and display it efficiently; they also provide information at any desired level of detail and precision. Including data in tables rather than text frequently makes it possible to reduce the length of the text. Type or print each table with double-spacing on a separate sheet of paper. Number tables consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief title for each. Do not use internal horizontal or vertical lines. Give each column a short or an abbreviated heading. Authors should place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading.

Explain all nonstandard abbreviations in footnotes, and use the following symbols, in sequence: *, †, ‡, §, ||, ¶, **, ††, ‡‡, §§, ||||, ¶¶ etc.

Identify statistical measures of variations, such as standard deviation (SD) and standard error of the mean (SEM). Be sure that each table is cited in the text. If you use data from another published or unpublished source, obtain permission and acknowledge that source fully. Additional tables containing backup data too extensive to publish in print may be appropriate for publication in the electronic version of the journal, deposited with an archival service, or made available to readers directly by the authors. An appropriate statement should be added to the text to inform readers that this additional information is available and where it is located. Submit such tables for consideration with the paper so that they will be available to the peer reviewers. The editor, upon accepting the manuscript, may recommend that additional tables containing important back-up data too extensive to be published may be made available by the author(s). In that event, an appropriate statement will be added to the text. Submit such tables for consideration with the manuscript.

ILLUSTRATIONS (Figures)

Figures should be either professionally drawn and photographed, or submitted as photographic-quality digital prints. In addition, the author(s) should supply electronic files of figures, clinical pictures, x-ray films, scans, and other diagnostic images, as well as pictures of pathology specimens or photomicrographs in JPEG format (minimum 100kb or 300 dpi). Letters, numbers, and symbols on figures should be clear and consistent throughout, and large enough to remain legible when the figure is reduced for publication. Titles and detailed explanations belong in the legendsnot on the illustrations themselves. Legends should be typed double-spaced and inserted after the references. If an illustration has been published previously, full credit to the original source must be given in the legend. Photomicrographs should have internal scale markers. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background. Photographs of potentially identifiable people must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph. Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been cited in the text. If a figure has been published previously, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the figure. Permission is required irrespective of authorship or publisher except for documents in the public domain.

Policy on image alteration: any image alteration from the original using programs such as Photoshop must be explained and justified in the legend.

Patient consent must accompany recognizable photographs of patients at the time of submission.Photographs and text (such as details in the case report or genetic pedigree) must be de-identified to protect patient confidentiality unless patient consent has been documented. Black bars over the eye region are not permitted. In the event that patient consent has not been documented, the author or the publisher can do blurring of the eye region. The altered figure must still be unidentifiable unless documentation of patient consent is provided.

ABBREVIATIONS

Use only standard abbreviations; use of nonstandard abbreviations can be confusing to readers. Avoid abbreviations in the title of the manuscript. The spelled-out abbreviation followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis should be used on first mention unless the abbreviation is a standard unit of measurement. ConsultScientific Style and Format by the Council of Biology Editors or the Manual of Style by the American Medical Association. Abbreviations in the title are not acceptable and they should be avoided in the abstract whenever possible.

Measurements of length, height, weight, and volume should be reported in metric units (meter, kilogram, or liter) or their decimal multiples. Temperatures should be in degrees Celsius. Blood pressures should be in millimeters of mercury. Hematological and clinical chemistry measurements should be reported in the metric system in terms of the International System of Units (SI). Editors may request that alternative or non-SI units be added by the author before publication